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Solidarites Terms of Reference: Study of Livelihoods in Turkana Central District

Job Title: Livelihood Expert

Start Date: March 1st, 2010

Under supervision and reporting to: Solidarites Head of Mission for Kenya/Somalia

Duration of Task: 13 weeks

Country: Kenya

Base: Turkana

Proposed zone of study:

An area approximately corresponding to the boundaries of Turkana Central District (approx 15,000 Km2), although the exact boundaries of the study zone will be agreed with the Solidarites technical team.

Summary task description:

The livelihood expert must first evaluate the relevance of a livelihood study in the proposed zone of Turkana.

If a livelihood study is relevant, then the expert will gather all necessary information to answer in a comprehensive way the following key questions:
• What are the basic physical, natural, financial, social and human characteristics that define the livelihood options available to people living in the assessed zone?
• What are the livelihood patterns of people living in the assessed zone?
• In a “normal” year, what are the different ways that people feed their families and earn a living throughout the assessed zone?
• What are the different coping strategies employed to anticipate or deal a food crisis?
Detailed Task Description

1. Context and background of the area to be assessed

Solidarités has been present in Kenya since 2007; the zones of intervention include urban slums of Nairobi and the ASAL areas of Chalbi District and Turkana Central District. From Nairobi, Solidarités also implements programmes in Bardera and Afmadow in Somalia.

The programmes which are currently implemented by Solidarités comprise of water and sanitation activities as well as food security activities.

The following is a summary list of current activities:

Water and sanitation sector:
• Open well rehabilitation
• Construction of riverbed infiltration wells
• Household and School latrine construction
• Construction of rainwater harvesting infrastructure (rock catchments, water pans construction/rehabilitation, roof water harvesting, hill catchments/underground storage tanks)
• Hygiene promotion
Food security sector:
• Seeds and tools distribution
• Urban agriculture
• Livestock activities (provision of veterinary services, poultry rearing, bee keeping,)
• Fodder production

2. Roles and responsibilities

The livelihood expert will design the method of collecting data and information; this method will be discussed and agreed upon with Solidarités technical team.

The livelihood expert will collect and analyse all the necessary information to answer the key questions and to describe the livelihoods of the population living in the assessed zone.

The livelihood expert will use the logistic and financial means provided by Solidarités to achieve the following results:

3. Expected results of the study

• Analysis of livelihood vulnerability and risk
• Description / mapping of livelihood zones
• Livelihood baseline profiles (household typology in each livelihood zone)
• Description of mechanisms of accessing to and sharing natural resources used by the different livelihood groups
• Description of a “normal” year for each livelihood zone

4. Methodology

Sectors for analysis: pastoralism, agriculture, fisheries, climate, markets, nutrition, conflict, natural resources (water and pasture).

The methodology should allow a holistic understanding of the strategies and assets that constitute the livelihoods of the people who live in the assessed zone.

The method should be based on a multi-scale approach which will provide in-depth analysis of the livelihoods at a macro level (District), meso level (livelihood zones) and micro level (household level).

At a macro level, the analysis will show how the institutional factor and the historical, cultural, socio-economic and bio-physical factors contribute to the current and possibly to the future livelihood status of the population in the assessed zone.

At a meso level, the analysis will describe the vulnerability and the hazards affecting each livelihood zone as well as the existing livelihood strategies and assets.

At the micro level, the analysis will help understand how resources are accessed and utilised at household level.

The analysis should enable strategic short and mid-term interventions which aim at promoting the livelihoods of the population living in the assessed zone.

• Vulnerability / risk mapping report (to be between 75 and 150 pages, not including annexes)
• Maps (+ supporting data) of natural resources
• Maps (+ supporting data) of pastoralist movements
• Recommendation on short and mid-term interventions to promote people’s livelihoods; this document should include practical suggestions on how to operationally implement the recommendations.
Debriefing and Schedule for Submission of Documents

Stage 1: April 22 and 23, 2010
• Debriefing in Nairobi

Stage 2: May 9, 2010

By this date, drafts of the following documents should be submitted to the Solidarites Head of Mission for Kenya/Somalia (in Nairobi) and the Food security technical advisor in Paris:
• Vulnerability mapping report
• Maps of pastoralist movements
• Recommendations
Stage 3: May 23, 2010
• By this date, finalize the exchanges and discussions on the draft documents
Stage 4: May 30, 2010
• By this date, all required documents should have been approved and submitted to the Solidarites Head of Mission for Kenya/Somalia (in Nairobi) and the Food security technical advisor in Paris.
Means of the Survey
• A vehicle will be put at the disposal of the expert(s) for the duration of the field work.
• All available documentation will be shared with the expert.
• Internet connection will be provided by Solidarites
• Others means to be confirmed

Living Conditions

1. Housing: Solidarités has a guesthouse in Lodwar (headquarter of Turkana Central District) which may accommodate 2 persons. In case the base is not able to accommodate all the survey team, there are some guesthouses which provide fairly good accommodation conditions at less than 12,000 KES per night.

2. Transport: Solidarités will cover the transport cost from Nairobi to Lodwar and within Turkana for all the movement related to the study. Solidarités will provide a 4x4 vehicle to the survey team in Turkana.

3. Security: The assessment mission will respect the Solidarités security protocols in the area. In fact Turkana experiences frequent security incidents mainly due to cattle rustling among the Turkana and the other pastoralist tribes who live around Turkana: Pokot, Samburu, in Kenya, Merile from Ethiopia, Toposa from Sudan and Mateniko from Uganda.

These tribal groups raid each other in order to steal livestock and during those raids, people are often killed. Another source of insecurity is the attacks of motorists on the highway by armed groups; these attacks are aimed at robbing passengers of cash and goods.

Apart from these two sources of insecurity, the local villages and centres are quite peaceful and the communities are welcoming.

4. Climate: Turkana is part of the Arid and Semi Arid Lands (ASALs) that are typified by warm and hot climate. Temperatures range is 24°-38°C with a mean of 30°C. The rainfall pattern and distribution is erratic and unreliable.

There are two rain seasons. Long rains occur between April and July while the short rains come between October and November. The driest periods are January, February and September. The precipitation ranges from between 50 mm and 500 mm annually with a mean of 200 mm.

There have, however, been much change in the times the rain falls and the amounts are noted to have been decreasing over time resulting in extended droughts that have become a more or less permanent feature of the Turkana way of life.

Specific Remarks

Proposed overall timetable:
• March 1 – 3: briefing by the Kenyan mission and discussion on the methodology
• March 4, 2010: departure to Lodwar
• March 5 to April 19, 2010: field data collection (6 weeks)
• April 22-23, 2010: debriefing in Nairobi
• May 9, 2010: deadline for the submission of drafts of all required documents
• May 23, 2010: deadline for feedback and discussions on the draft documents
• May 30, 2010: deadline for the submission of all final documents
How to Apply

Please send your proposal, highlighting the following:
• Brief introduction of bidding firm or person, attaching CVs and relevant professional references
• Your understanding of the Terms of Reference
• Proposed methodology and approach
• Proposed work plan and budget Your availability
Application packages should be sent to jobapplication @

Applications must be received on or before COB 16th February 2010.

Any questions on this opportunity please email: or get us on facebook

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